Due to discrimination coupled with a lack of workplace protections, unequal job benefits and taxation, and unsafe, under-resourced U.S. schools, LGBT people of colour face extraordinarily high rates of unemployment and poverty.
A Broken Bargain for LGBT Workers of Colour, a companion to the recently released report, A Broken Bargain: Discrimination, Fewer Benefits, and More Taxes for LGBT Workers, is co-authored by the Movement Advancement Project (MAP), the Center for American Progress (CAP) and its FIRE Initiative, Freedom to Work, the Human Rights Campaign (HRC), and the National Black Justice Coalition (NBJC), in partnership with Colour of Change, the Leadership Conference Education Fund, League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), the National Action Network, the National Queer Asian Pacific Islander Alliance (NQAPIA), Out and Equal Workplace Advocates, and SEIU.
The report is available online at www.lgbtmap.org/workers-of-color. Among its major findings:
LGBT PEOPLE ARE MORE RACIALLY AND ETHNICALLY DIVERSE THAN THE U.S. POPULATION AS A WHOLE
A Broken Bargain for LGBT Workers of Colour presents the latest demographic information about LGBT workers of colour, including:
- About one-third of LGBT people are people of colour. In a 2012 Gallup poll, one in three LGBT respondents (33%) identified themselves as people of colour, compared to 27% of non-LGBT respondents. In all, there are an estimated 5.4 million LGBT workers in the United States, of which 1.8 million are people of colour.
- The geographic distribution of LGBT workers of colour mirrors that of people of colour as a whole. Census Data show LGBT people of colour are more likely to live in areas with significant numbers of other people of colour.
- Large numbers of LGBT workers of colour are raising children. Data from the 2010 Census show that LGBT people of colour are more likely to be raising children than white LGBT people. MAP estimates that between 780,000 and 1.1 million children are being raised by LGBT people of colour.
- LGBT youth of colour are at high risk of becoming homeless. An estimated 20-40% of homeless youth in the U.S. identify as LGBT or believe they may be LGBT. Research also shows that African American and Native American young people are overrepresented among LGBT homeless youth, as well as the broader homeless population. One study found that among homeless youth who identify as gay or lesbian, 44% identified as black and 26% as Latino.
- LGBT workers of colour are at significant risk of being unemployed. LGBT people of colour have higher rates of unemployment compared to non-LGBT people of colour. In addition, unemployment rates for transgender people of colour have reached as high as four times the national unemployment rate.
- LGBT workers of colour are at significant risk of poverty. Research shows that LGBT people of colour, and particularly black LGBT people, are at a much higher risk of poverty than non-LGBT people. For example, black same-sex couples have poverty rates at least twice the rate of black opposite-sex married couples (18% vs. 8%).
“Contrary to popular stereotypes, LGBT workers are more racially diverse than the general population, making it critical to address the unique obstacles they face,” said Sharon Lettman-Hicks, Executive Director and CEO of the National Black Justice Coalition. “Bias and prejudice based on race, sexual orientation, and gender identity/expression intersect to the detriment of LGBT workers of colour.”
LGBT WORKERS OF COLOR CONFRONT A DUAL BURDEN OF SOCIAL STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION
“Systemic barriers and inequities in the educational system make it harder for LGBT people of colour to meet workforce qualifications,” said Ineke Mushovic, Executive Director of the Movement Advancement Project. “LGBT workers of colour are also unfairly denied or lack access to job-related benefits that other workers take for granted, making it harder for these workers to earn a living and provide for their families.”
A Broken Bargain for LGBT Workers of Colour examines how LGBT workers of colour face unique challenges related to their race and ethnicity and their sexual orientation and/or gender identity in three areas:
- Educational Barriers: LGBT youth of colour are among the children who are most at risk of dropping through the cracks of the U.S. educational system. The reasons include: unsafe and under-resourced schools, a lack of support for LGBT students, and a “school-to-prison” pipeline that results in significant numbers of LGBT students of colour entering the juvenile justice and correctional systems.
- Hiring Bias and On-the-Job Discrimination: Barriers such as unwarranted background checks, inadequate or non-existent non-discrimination protection for LGBT workers, and the lack of mentorships and on-the-job support make it difficult for many LGBT workers of colour to find good and steady jobs that provide them with the economic security they need to support themselves and their families.
- Unequal Pay, Benefits and Taxation: LGBT workers of colour receive unequal pay and unfair access to job-related benefits, leaving them with less to care for themselves and their families—even if they are doing the same jobs and working just as hard as other workers.
“While there are laws in place to help protect workers from discrimination based on race and ethnicity, it is still legal to fire or refuse to hire someone on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation in the majority of states,” said Winnie Stachelberg, Executive Vice President of External Affairs at CAP. “Addressing this gap in federal law is one more step forward in the march for equality and justice for all people, regardless of race, ethnicity, gender identity, or sexual orientation.”
COMMON-SENSE SOLUTIONS CAN REDUCE UNFAIR BARRIERS TO SUCCESS FOR LGBT WORKERS OF COLOR
“Fixing the broken bargain for LGBT workers of colour will help ensure that they are treated fairly no matter where they work, that they receive the same compensation for the same work, and that they can access important benefits available to other workers to protect their health and livelihood,” said Tico Almeida, President of Freedom to Work.
A Broken Bargain for LGBT Workers offers detailed recommendations for action to fix the broken bargain for LGBT workers of colour by the federal, state, and local governments, as well as colleges, universities, and employers. Recommendations include:
- Eliminate or reduce educational barriers for LGBT youth of colour by passing the federal Safe Schools Improvement Act (SSIA) and the Student Non-Discrimination Act (SNDA) in an effort to reduce discrimination and bullying in schools.
- Eliminate or reduce bias and discrimination against LGBT workers of colour by passing federal legislation to ban employment discrimination nationwide on the basis of gender identity/expression and sexual orientation.
- Secure equal pay and benefits for LGBT workers of colour by increasing federal and state protections against wage discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, sexual orientation and gender identity/expression and increasing access to good jobs with good benefits for LGBT workers of colour.
“America has passed numerous laws and policies based on an understanding that protecting the interests of workers and their families is good for the economy and good for the country. It is time for those protections to extend to LGBT workers of colour,” said Jeff Krehely, Vice President and Chief Foundation Officer at the Human Rights Campaign.